We now know about various Generations of Microprocessors. Lets take a look towards one of the most important microprocessors, The Intel 8085.
The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor produced by Intel and introduced in 1976. It is a software-binary compatible with the more-famous Intel 8080 with only two minor instructions added to support its added interrupt and serial input/output features.
Features of 8085
- It is a 8-bit, NMOS microprocessor.
- It is a 40 pin IC fabricated on a single chip.
- It operates on +5V dc supply.
- Its clock speed is about 3 Mhz
- It has 80 basic instructions and 246 opcodes.
- It consists of three main sections: ALU, a timing and control unit and a set of registers.
The Architecture of 8085
The Various components of 8085 are as follows:
Arithmetic and Logical Unit
ALU performs following operations:
- Addition, Subtraction
- Logical AND, OR, XOR, NOT –Increment and Decrement
- Left shift, Rotate left, Rotate Right –Clear, etc.
Timing and Control Unit:
- It is a section of CPU.
- It generates timing and control signals which are necessary for the execution of instructions.
- It controls the flow of data between CPU and peripherals.
- It provides status , control and timing signals for the operation of memory and I/O device.
These are used by microprocessor for temporary storage and manipulation of data and instructions. 8085 contains following registers.
- One 8 bit accumulator i.e. register A
- Six 8 bit general purpose registers . These are B,C,D,E,H and L
- One 16 bit stack pointer.
- One 16 bit program counter.
- Instruction Register.
- Temporary Register.
- Accumulator is a 8 bit register associated with ALU.
- It is used to hold one of the operands of an arithmetic and logic operation.
- The other operand for the arithmetic operation may be stored in the memory location or any of the general purpose register.
- The final result is stored in the accumulator (except for single operand instruction or DAD rp instruction)
General Purpose Registers
- The 8085 contains six 8-bit general purpose registers: B,C,D,E,H,L
- To hold 16 bit data a combination of two 8-bit registers is employed.
- The combination of two registers is called register pair.
- The valid register pairs are B-C, D-E, H-L. The programmer cannot form a register pair of his own choice.
- The H-L pair is used to act as memory pointer so it holds the address of the 16 bit memory location.
- The general purpose registers and accumulator are accessible to programmer.
- Program Counter is a 16 bit special register.
- It is used to hold the memory address of the next instruction to be executed.
- It keep tracks of the memory addresses of the instructions in a program while they are executed.
- The microprocessor increments the content of the program counter during the execution of the instruction so that it points to the address of the next instruction to be executed.
- Stack is a sequence of memory locations set aside by the programmer to store/retrieve the contents of accumulator, general purpose registers, flags, program counter.
- During the execution of the program sometimes it becomes necessary to save the contents of registers which are needed for some other subsequent steps of the program.
- The contents of such registers are saved in the stack.
- After completing the needed operations the contents are saved back to the registers.
- Stack Pointer is a special purpose 16 bit register that stores the address of the top element of the stack.
- The stack is defined and the stack pointer is initialized by the programmer at the beginning of the program that needs stack.
Instruction and Temporary Register
- Instruction Register holds the opcode (operation code) of the instruction which is being decoded and executed.
- Temporary Register: It is an 8 bit register associated to ALU.
- It holds data during an arithmetic or logic unit.
- It is used by the microprocessor and not accessible by the programmer.
Intel 8085 consists of five flip-flops to serve as status flags. The flip-flops are set or reset according to the conditions which arise during an arithmetic or logical operation. If a flip-flop for a particular flag is set, it indicates 1. When it is reset, it indicates 0.
- Carry Status Flag (CS): If in the result of the arithmetic operation carry is produced then this flag is set to 1 otherwise it is set to 0.
- Parity Flag (P): If the result of the arithmetic or logical operation contains even number of one then this flag is set to 1 otherwise it is set to zero.
- Auxiliary Carry Flag (AC): It holds carry out of the bit number 3 to bit number 4 resulting out of the arithmetic operation.
- Zero Flag (Z): If the result of the arithmetic and logical operation is zero, then it is set to 1, otherwise it is set to 0.
- Sign Flag (S): If the result of the arithmetic operation is negative then it is set to 1, otherwise 0.
For example, In case of Addition of CB and E9 CB = 11001011
E9 = 11101001
Result = 10110100 (01 B4)
CS=1, P=1, AC=1, Z=0, S=0
Data and Address Bus
- Intel 8085 has 8 bit data bus. So 8 bits can be transferred in parallel from or to the microprocessor.
- It requires 16 bits wide address bus to address 64 K of memory locations.
- The 8 most significant bits of the address are transmitted by the Address bus (A8 to A15).
- The 8 least significant bits of address are transferred through address/data bus (AD0 –AD7).
- The AD bus works in time shared mode. This process is called multiplexing.
Program Status Word (PSW)
- The combination of five status bits and three undefined bits is called Program Status Word.
- PSW and accumulator are treated as 16 bit unit for stack operation.
You can Learn about pin diagram of 8085 here.